Joseph-Vincent Quiblier, the Sulpician Superior in Montreal beginning in 1830, commissioned the first Stations of the Cross for the new church of Notre-Dame from James Bowman, a travelling artist from the United States. It was a large commission, and Bowman did not complete it. It was then given to his most visible Canadian rival, Antoine Plamondon, who spent from 1836 to 1839 on the project, assisted by two apprentices (one of whom was Théophile Hamel). Although the paintings were a success with the public, they were rejected by Quiblier on the advice of the Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith in Rome. This series of canvases, the most cohesive and ambitious Plamondon ever produced, was replaced by paintings commissioned from the Bombelli brothers of Rome. These were soon set aside in favour of others by unidentified European artists.